NH3 Molecular Geometry, Hybridization, Bond Angle and Molecular Shape

NH3 stands for the Ammonia or also known as Nitrogen Trihydride. Ammonia gas is known as Azane. One can also use H3N as the molecular formula of Ammonia, and the molecular weight of the component is 17.031 g/mol. If we talk in general, you may know that Ammonia is a colorless inorganic compound of Nitrogen and Hydrogen. It is a colorless alkaline gas. The aqueous form of Ammonia is referred as Ammonium Hydroxide.

Nh3 Molecular Electron Geometry

NH3 Electron Geometry

In this article, you will get the entire information regarding the molecular geometry of NH3 like its Lewis structure, electron geometry, hybridization, bond angles, and molecular shape. First of all, let’s start with the basics. Here I am going to show you a step-by-step explanation of the Lewis structure!

Lewis Structure of NH3

One can easily predict a lot about the molecules’ chemical reactions and other components just by observing their lewis Structure as well as the molecular geometry. To know the atom arrangement, distribution of electrons, and molecule shape is crucial in chemistry.

Ammonia or Nitrogen Trihydride is a form of colorless gas. On the periodic table, Nitrogen is in group 15. So, it has five valence electrons. Hydrogen is in category 1. It has one valence electron. But here, we have 3 Hydrogens, so we should multiply it by 3.

Lewis StructureSo, 5 + 1 (3) = Total of 8 Valence Electrons. Hydrogen always goes on the outside, so let’s put our Nitrogen in the middle, and as we have three of them, There will be three Hydrogen around the Nitrogen. And now we have eight valence electrons; we are going to form chemical bonds with those.

So, we will put them between atoms first, and Hydrogen only needs two valence electrons to have a full outer shell. So, Hydrogens are going to be packed with 2 valence electrons. There are two for each and so 6, but we have 8 in total! Let’s just put those up here, and now if you take a look, we can see that Nitrogen has 8 valence electrons, so its octet is full; and each of the Hydrogens has two valence electrons.

So, this is the Lewis structure for NH3. You will see it drawn a lot as a structural formula. That is going to look like this right here. Here, these electrons are represented by a line. And that’s it. It is the NH3.

NH3 Hybridization – SP3

To know about the hybridization of Ammonia, look at the regions around the Nitrogen. That’s the unbonded electron pairs and then the Sigma bonds. So, here we have an unbonded electron bond and three sigma bonds. Thus, these four regions make Ammonia SP3 hybridized because we have S and three Ps that are being hybridized around the Nitrogen atom. The hydrogen atoms are just S orbitals which will overlap with those SP3 orbitals, so that’s it. That is the hybridization of NH3.

NH3 Bond Angles

Bond angleIn NH3, the bond angles are 107 degrees. It is close to the tetrahedral angle which is 109.5 degrees. But it is 107 degrees because the bonding pair occupies less space than the nonbonding pair.

NH3 Molecular Shape

The shape of NH3 is Trigonal Pyramidal. When there is one atom in the middle, and three others at the corners and all the three molecules are identical, the molecular geometry achieves the shape of trigonal pyramidal. Ammonia is having this form as the Nitrogen has 5 valence electrons and bonds with 3 Hydrogen atoms to complete the octet.

Is NH3 Polar or Nonpolar?

Nh3 PolarThe molecular geometry of NH3 is trigonal pyramidal with asymmetric charge distribution on the central atom. Therefore this molecule is polar.

NH3 Electron Geometry

We have discussed almost everything about Ammonia. Now let’s move forward and know about the electron geometry. NH3 electron geometry is: ‘Tetrahedral,’ as it has four group of electrons. One group has an unshared pair of electrons. ‘N’ has tetrahedral electronic geometry. Thus, Ammonia is an example of the molecule in which the central atom has shared as well as an unshared pair of electrons.


So, that’s all for the Ammonia. I hope I have given the information of Ammonia or NH3 you were expecting. The Geometry of Molecules is an amazingly compelling and exciting subject and to know such basics is essential if you are entering in the real chemistry field. Stay curious always and try to identify each aspect by your own with the logic and magic of science.

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